Created / Renewed
2012/03/27 - 2013/10/26


There are such pages on the site:


More significant materials of the site:

Shortage of panoramic thinking: signs seen everywhere
Panoramic thinking as a concept
Creating a system of civilization security
Opening a path to sustainable development
Civilization Security division at the UN has to be
Bankruptcy of intelligent people in civilization process
Civilization omissions to be found and filled in
Nature's recommendations for international institutions
New dimension of human rights
Universal Declaration of Human Planetary Responsibility
Humankind must have been fooled
Coauthoring with Voltaire
Secret of humor from depth of the evolution
Evolution classification of J.Warfield's mental bugs


Evolution sense of notions and techniques used by the human science


There is no difficulty to have seen anthropomorphic tendency in development of the technical devices and mechanisms. Here is how Academician I.I. Artobolevskiy expressed it:

"The man, as philosophers said, is the measure of all the things. Man is not only finely adapted to his surroundings, but he accommodate to himself "the second Nature", i.e. the techno-sphere created around him. Handles of all controlling mechanisms, electrical knife-switches and usual switches, doors and stairs, cars and aircrafts – all those are created for people and in conformity with their sizes" ([1], p. 36).

Let us put a question: maybe the artificial "intellectual surrounding", i.e. the science, in similar way has been adapted as well to properties of human reason? In other words, maybe we, peering at Nature's mirror for Nature to cognize, see at the mirror not only (not so much) Nature, but as well (as) its reflection in human minds?

The main idea of the lecture is to show that in natural sciences there is many more subjectivity (read: not a recognized anthropomorphic tendency) than it used to consider, and to point out way to overcome it and even use.

Evidence of the idea's authenticity

Let's select some most important evolution factors having much to deal with coming-to-be of the human science as a societal phenomenon.

1. Appearance, owing photo-synthesis, of secondary (oxygenic) atmosphere. Not having it, energetic ensuring quite developed forms of the life would be impossible; the conditions would not seem to be ensured for organisms with nervous system to arise and evolve.

2. Quasi-regularity of earthly world both in the time and space (e.g., change of a year's seasons, of days and nights, regular interchange of feelings when living creatures move along the same way on the earthy surface). All that gave pre-conditions for them to have elaborated conditional reflects[2].

3. Appearance of high-velocity biochemical reactions initiated with ferments . The reactions got a physiological base in order to foresee the future on its signs seeing at the present (i.e. to provide for the forestalling reflection).

4. Switching on the selection mechanism (i.e. elimination of weak fit individuals) already on early stage of the animal evolution.It predestined appearance of dominant kind of behavior (exit from dangerous situations, chase of bag, fight for females and domination in the pack) based on dominant character of nervous system's activity [3].

5. Sufficient prolonged action of the selection mechanism (in duration of life of many generations) . Because of that the evolution «interest» of animals -to survive and reproduce themselves- had possibilities to be quite expressed in discrimination: dangerous - not dangerous, eatable - not eatable, advantageously – not advantageously, comfortably - not comfortably, safely - unsafely, agreeably - not agreeably. Thus, the binary logics as an intention to divide notions in dichotomist way is an evolution acquire having some million year history.

6. Transition of the 5-finger placentas animal (having been the ancestor of the anthropomorphous monkeys) to the existence on trees . Since the long evolution of visual organ got origin to provide adequate orientation in more complex conditions of existence. Seemingly just since then, beginning from pre-monkeys, the vision began turning into the main sense putting back sense of smell and hearing. [4]

7. Transition of the anthropomorphous monkeys to up-right going. Because of that a new stimulus to develop organ of vision appeared. In result of such evolution prehistory, human science shows a preference for visional structures used.

8. Transition to omnivorous existence, coping with fire. These two evolution events had consequences in enrichment of primordial human being's mind with nutrition and reduction of digestion time being not productive for thinking what in result widened possibilities of the primordial man's cortex to create new nervous links.

9. Origin and development of concerted labor (hunting and fishing, farming and domestication of animals). All that had been going simultaneously with the speech's forming. Together with its appearance arose the societal inheritance of vital experience to be a prototype of the succession of knowledge in the science.

10. Complication of social environment (switching on inter-tribe relations). Because of that, stakes of the reason in fight for survival had grown up.

Thus, the developed consciousness of the modern epochs has such the evolutionary inherited features: limited volume of field of consciousness preconditioned by the dominant mechanism, and correspondingly successive character of actions. Both logicality and sequence of judgments being so appreciated by us, rare appearances of synthetic / generalizing ideas in the science (as well in the life) in comparison with analytic ones – all these are described properties of the human intelligence.

The said above permits to infer about the human science, its content, notions, methods and tools, all together being stipulated by the previous evolution of the life on Earth. Thus, the principle of forming scientific notions is getting tightly connected with their dichotomist division while into account are taken a few signs and properties, at that rigidly fixed. In other words, the human being is a product of earthy evolution, and his science is "saturated" with evolutionary conditioned properties and peculiarities of his earthy mentality.

Areas for the idea to use in the science

Creating message on the cosmic language Lincos [5] for an out-of-Earth recipient, the Lincos author, Hollander mathematician Freudental, presupposed to inform cosmic foreigners how the natural series of numbers is formed by residents of Earth planet. At that he considered without doubt that natural numbers should be known for a science of any civilization. In connection with the said above, one may question it. Really, the natural number is natural notion in such the world where there are sets of sufficient stable objects, at that distinguished in visual or another way. But we can imagine any civilization of plasma clots [6] where the natural number may be considered fully as a notion of the highest level of abstraction, even if generally inacceptable (because of its pseudo-scientific character!)

The question arises then: whether the science has any cosmic-objective content being not dependent on peculiarities of the intelligence of those creators-psychosoics who had created it? And if “yes”, how the “objective” content may be found?

To solve this problem is of significant importance, at that not only for future cosmic contacts. The problem has a big sense first for all for the earthy practice of humankind, whose scientific thought was and is intending always to become free from subjectivism of any kind – personal, group, corporative, party, ethnic, religious. Human (or earthy) subjectivism of the science has to be placed into the same series.

Let us plan a decision of the problem. Let us have for beginning formulated the principle of tolerance [7] being possessed of big all-biological significance.

At any level of the evolution and for any existing species, volume of the space of species properties is not zero value.

Speaking merely, it is about the living Nature what is tolerant to distinctions and diversity.

Evidence of this assertion may be shown easy using the rule of contraries. Really, let us imagine any species to have full adaptation to existing conditions what means that there is no dispersion of individual properties and hence zero volume of the corresponding properties' space. Such the species would be then not fit absolutely to smallest changes of outer conditions. Therefore such series might only whether to cease existing or acquire a dispersion of individual properties. Q.e.d.

Evidence of the principle may be proved as well with straightforward consideration. Only admitting diversity of the life we can apprehend possibility for living beings to be young and old, healthy and ill, for higher animals to be male and female, for species to modify and turn into other species. Briefly, to have seen all evolutionary panorama of the life on Earth.

One may think that if mathematics, this universal language of the science, would use this principle in sequel way, i.e. going out of "rigid" structures to "soft", or tolerant, then the known inadequacy of mathematics applied to biology and medicine [8] would be overcome. (About physical analogue of this principle see at [9]).

Let's mark the principle of tolerance "takes into account" next factors of the evolution:

•  Quasi-stability of outer world (as in chaotic milieu, no species and its genome might not form);

•  Not utmost pressure of selective elimination (as Nature does not intend to stake on creating any perfect organisms);

•  Under-fitness (being a necessary condition for a species to be stable).

As the principle characterizes earthy evolution in very common view, there is a hypothesis what may by said out for farthest study:

the principle of tolerance is fair anywhere where living creatures possessing reason are arising in result of an evolution process.

Then addition stimulus will appear to explain what a base of such supposedly cosmic-objective science is standing behind it.

Another evolution approach to notions and techniques of the earthy science is to have analyzed in details both pre-evolution and evolution of the human and apprehend how all this is connected with his mental and physiological properties and peculiarities, both known and to be discovered and possibly to understand how the ancient mechanisms of delusion had been formed to pre-determinate (for many people, if not for overwhelming majority) primate of the interest ( very widely understood) over the truth .

What you about to know any root causes why our reason is such imperfect? This direction of the study being a priori interesting for psychologists, physiologists, psychiatrists, evolution biologists, anthropologists would be important as intending to clear the science of delusions honored by the traditions, as well of all kinds of subjectivism including "cosmic" one.

References (all in Russian)  

1. Sheynin Yu. Integral intellect. - Moscow, 1970.
2. Anokhin P.K. Biology and neurophysiology of conditioned reflex. - Ì ., 1968.
3. Rusinov V.S. Dominant. - M ., 1969.
4. Chollitser V. The man within scientific picture of the world. - M ., 1971.
5. Shklovsky I.S. Universum. Life. Reason. - M., 1976.
6. Tretyakov V. Do I speak cognitively? - The Chemistry and the Life. 1983, # 6.
7. Tretyakov V. Principle of tolerance (in Ukrainian). – The Science and the Society (Kiev). 1989, #12.
8. On the way to theoretical biology. - M., 1970.
9. Tretyakov V.N. Hypothesis on the inherent tolerance (intrinsic uncertainty) as common property of physical systems, in: Not-traditional scientific ideas on the Nature and its phenomena, V. II. - Homel, 1990.
*) Based on the plenary report by V.N. Tretyakov “ On evolution meaning of notions and techniques of the human science ” published in Proc. All-USSR Conference «Non-traditional scientific ideas on the Nature and its phenomena». – Homel (Belarus), 1990, Vol. I, pp. 3—9 (in Russian).

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