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2015/07/01 - 2015/07/01


There are such pages on the site:


More significant materials of the site:

Opening a path to sustainable development
Shortage of panoramic thinking: signs seen everywhere
Panoramic thinking as a concept
Creating a system of civilization security
Civilization Security division at the UN has to be
Bankruptcy of intelligent people in civilization process
Civilization omissions to be found and filled in
Nature's recommendations for international institutions
New dimension of human rights
Universal Declaration of Human Planetary Responsibility
Humankind must have been fooled
Coauthoring with Voltaire
Secret of humor from depth of the evolution
Evolution classification of mental bugs



Changing the cognitive sciences paradigm  

By Dr. Uladzimir Tratsiakou

On evolution of the human mentality

Earth, what a point under question sign! This Stanislaw Lecs thought gives a representation about global problems that in more and more threatening way are hanging over the world. Really, human Reason to have made for creating of the mighty civilization in during of about 45 thousand years is facing now the complex system of global problems and challenged to cope with them (or even if to relieve) for some decades because the problems keep aggravating.

Thus, to realize better failures and virtues of the reason seems to open humankind any new resources of civilization development.

Imperfectness of the human mentality has the character of atavism, because Homo Sapiens after having got the very successful animal species got out of the press of elimination evolution, so its mentality is near to animal one [4]. It is proved by isomorphism between human face and animal snout being seen in maximal nearness of the main organs of senses (eyes, hears, nose, tongue) to the governing organ, the brain. Just because of there is such the brainy atavism of human mentality as narrow volume of attention [9.4], being big advantage for survival in the wild nature, what in civilization conditions turned out into inherited imperfection named shortage of panoramic thinking [9.1].

Shortage of panoramic thinking

Here may be seen a roll-call with William James conceptual metaphors consciousness island, unconscious ocean what was played upon in the very title of the book [7].

Just because shortage of panoramic thinking (SPT) there are scientific omissions do exist now, were before and will be after [9.1]. That was Albert Einstein who said out the thought: The significant problems we face today cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them. To meditate about not the same, but another level of thinking may mean to think trying to overcome just SPT, this evolutionarily aggravated human mental feature. It is To be or not to be? dilemma that will force us and our progeny to master the panoramic thinking [9.2] both at individual and collective levels.

Imperative character of such the challenge permits to say about SPT-complex as the existential meta-problem of human civilization [9.3]. It had been realized implicitly long ago as all the human history may be seen as that of overcoming SPT with help of innovations, scientific results, gaining skills and living experience.

As an ideal to strive for is represented the panoramic thinking what includes a whole manifold of different kinds of thinking at when backwardness, ignorance and narrowness of consciousness have overcome. Panoramic thinking then may be considered as a concept to unite all those kinds of thinking that are not customary for the most people, such as systemic, inventive, nonstandard, volumetric, self-critic, parallel, throughout, independent, anti-deviant, of a big scale, of full spectrum, etc.

Moreover, overcoming SPT should, in particular, consist of as well insecticide of ones own mental bugs, a kind of these described by John Warfield in his mentomology [6]. Their classification to be given there is represented later on evolution ground and at that essentially replenished [9.5]. The classification is based on presumption that SPT is the common ancestor of all these mental bugs. Just because of this SPT may be named as the universal feature of human mentality what had been turned out a backwardness. It is just so because all human history may be seen as the history of overcoming SPT [9.6], and the question in keen formulation is even about whether humankind may fall victim of self-extinction.

Panorama of adequate (not deviant) thinking is narrowed, in particular, because of those Warfields mindbugs, being so consonant with Russian cockroaches within head. There are 8 kinds of their appearances [9.5]:

I* Affinity to All-Encompassing Hierarchic Organization in All Spheres of the Life and at Any Social System
II* Mood to Using Binary (Black-White) Logics in Words and Dealing
III* Getting Confused at Thinking When Quantity of Objects of Thought Excesses a Quite Not Big Number
IV* Affinity to Hasty Both Mental and Dealing Actions
V* Ever-Presenting Interest Understood Widely Doing its Impact onto Mental Activity
VI* Otherness as Provoking to Experience Alienation, Estrangement, Xenophobe, and Hostility
VII* Inclination to Use the Mind for Non-Burdensome Conveying Events That Occur and Thoughts Heard or Read
VIII* Distorted Trending for Aggressiveness, Being Former Biologically Expedient, to Get More and More Dangerous for Humanity

This typology, one may admit its incompleteness, shows both psychological and pedagogical problem of great importance. Using J. Warfield metaphor, it may be called as the problem of insecticide of the psychics for zone of correct and adequate thinking to be widened.

SPTs signs are seen everywhere [9.6]: in institutions names, legislative acts. There is enormous and poorly studied area of impertinences of any spoken and written language, its samples-lexemes being carefully forwarded from one generation to the next (in [9.14] such the supervision is demonstrated with examples of Russian). Even character of the human humor (see Secret of the humor from depths of evolution [9.11] rediscovered 5 years later by American psychologists [9.16]) proves SPTs existence because all 22 manners to engender comic effects considered are nothing other as playing on words, i.e. as-if overcoming SPT.

SPT confirms its existence whenever a scientific omission comes to light. Here are 5 examples of such the confirmations.

1. There are in the science Jacob Bronowskys principle of tolerance (near symptoms should be treated with near methods) and R. Carnaps principle of tolerance (on tolerant relation to new theories that do not contradict logics), but big science to use to its utmost categorization and classification, knows nothing about principle of tolerance having evidently pan- biological character [9.8]: Nature does not stake on creating the single perfect organism, and because of this phase space of species features for any species has principally not zero volume. At its simplest, the principle is read as Nature gives the life tolerances, or Nature is tolerant to differences.
Fairness of this principle and its whole biological character are seen owing to the very diversity within any animal species, and a species exists just because its individuals are able to use such as-if categories as ours and others, within ours to select such as-if classes as males, females, children, dominants, and between others as dangerous, not dangerous, edible, not edible etc.

2. That was American ecologist Victor Shelford who published in 1911 the ecological law of tolerance. He was a step from discovering that whole biological principle of tolerance (look at [9.10]), but this step was not done.

3. As if confirming the thesis on scientific omissions of whole civilization significance, the psychological science to use principle of tolerance implicitly didnt give it an explicit formulation. Even word tolerance is given in inquire psychological books only in connection with physiological and socio-physiological notions toleration, steadiness, insurability.
So, as far as animals as-if know psychological principle of tolerance (PPT) , human beings should know it as well. For PPT to get presenting in the psychology explicitly there were a masse of possibilities that were omitted. To know PPT means to know why people can associate with one another with words, use classifications and categorizations, form notions, go ahead with plans and ideas and realize them, get the creator of civilization as a result of all this. This universal ability of the brain not to remark or ignore differences is strongly corresponding with Natures tolerance to differences.

4. Here is one more confirmation how SPT is acting. From point of view of PPT, the mathematics, as almost universal language of the science, ignores the most important creative feature of the human mind, not including the relation of tolerance into its ground. Authors attempt to give a fragment of a theory for algebras with relations of tolerance on fuzzy sets [9.13] was not remarked. The same effect was with the work [9.9], devoted to more adequate understanding of physical laws not as functional dependences of physical variables, but as their generalized tolerant representations.

5. But the very main omission, not only scientific one, but of all civilization, seems to be both in not realizing SPT as a civilization threat and absent of any (imperatively demanded!) actions to overcome it. Some of such actions are seen both of the individual scale (transfer to educational concept of the panoramic thinking as the priority to realize) and collective one (forming the intelligent resource of the planet).

Principle of tolerance in action

Enacting PPT is to execute a tolerant inclusion understood as any procedure and its result of abstracting at ignoring or overlooking differences between objects of a research, for example notions. As such, it has a sense of both categorization and category [9.4], being correlated with cognitive human activity. But objects to be taken into tolerant inclusion may enter in much more wider class than that of concepts, and to include, for example, a lexeme, word and even separate phoneme (at abstracting from differences in their pronunciations and ways of writing) and separate notion (when of significance are its senses and definitions used).

Corresponding notion to be generalizing the notion of both classification and class may be named tolerant separation, in short t-inclusion. It means t-separations are as well t-inclusions but by narrowed tolerance to differences. Naturally, a t-inclusion may not have less than two t-separations.

One of consequences of having SPT is human inclination to metaphors, including conceptual and cognitive ones. The gist is that they showing one through another give us a new understanding (or even if visibility of understanding). From this point of view is of interest to elicit how much the tolerant inclusion as a term fulfills this function of the metaphor. Lets follow its features given in [3]:

1. A means to create figurative speech yes (as word inclusion is very physically expressive);
2. Function of evaluating yes (as adjective tolerant has positive connotation);
3. Emotionally-evaluating function no (but for conceptual metaphors, t-inclusion is one of them, it may be even undesirable).
4. Nominative function yes (because a new notion is introduced, at that of 2 kinds: realized and unrealized t-inclusions).
5. Cognitive function yes (because the very notion t-inclusion has to do with human cognitive abilities).

As to t-separation, it is metaphoric as well as a sub-structure of t-inclusion and because of physical expressiveness of separation word.

On unique human mentality

World Science in early 2014 [8] informed about unique area within the human frontal cortex, what is absent chez animals. Matthew Rushwort, one of the researchers, elucidated that owing to this area we are able to plan the future, to be flexible in approaches, be able to learn from others. Conclusion was done: We identified this area as seemingly having to do with our cognitive abilities.

How it follows of the above said, character of producing both t-inclusions and t-separations within the brain is different: realized and unrealized chez people, unrealized solely chez animals. It means there is ground to say out such the hypothesis:

revealed frontal area to be available chez people and absent chez their next forbears is responsible just for realized both t-inclusions and t-separations.

The remark able to plan the future is confirming the hypothesis as any plan intended by a person represents itself as realized t-inclusion of some actions to do. As to flexibility in approaches then is as well about tolerant inclusions. They for example may be used as temporary building sides in inner (mental) space at creating future theories.

On new cognitive sciences paradigm

Individuation, after C. Jung [1], i.e. self-coming-to-be, or self-realization, means more-less perfect using by a human his own collective destinies because sufficiently full account of a persons originality only gives a hope of a better social effect.
Without doubt, a scientists destiny is collective. It means that the sense of such the individuation for a scientist includes as well working out his own worldview replenished in course of the life. One may presuppose that realization of the approach will carry out a scientist to ordering his unconscious mind as conscious and unconscious mutually accomplish up to the single, i.e. selfness.
If to speak about social effect, it may be especially significant when a scientist is present cognitive science. If its paradigm is effective then its applications are able to get methodological guide for theoretical research in any science, including cognitive one.

As to a new paradigm of the cognitive science then there are grounds to include into it SPT in aspect of positive influence on a scientist if he has realized SPT as having the universal character and got in return for this full sureness that just now, as well as earlier, there are discoveries and ideas of great significance hidden behind the horizon of the knowledge, and that they as if pre-exist and call for them to reveal.

Our enormous and massive civilization has such big inertia of movement that to turn it even if one angular second out of the way what is likely to go to breach of the human history is improbably hard and maybe, as some considered, hopeless occupation.

An optimism may be given by the thought: if people might have created such enormous civilization not realizing quite fully both the principle of tolerance governing the brains activity and the universal character of SPT, then they maybe will appear successful with much more hard task of civilization salvation when such the realization will get explicit and enter in scientific paradigm of the cognitive science.

It may be considered that SPT, this existential civilization threat, is a challenge first of all to cognitive psychologists that might make for mastering the panoramic thinking deliberated of myths, prejudices and other mental bugs and break a road for specialists of other sciences for them to open extensive field of activity to fill up big achevements omitted by the science.

After J. Piaget [2], the modern phenomenology is coherent with the concept of emergent appearance of inner mental structures what are not transferred genetically. It permit to think that metaphorical message containing in notions tolerant inclusion and tolerant separation will make not only for using these structures but for a deeper understanding the very cognitive process, even if carry out to discoveries of all-civilization meaning.

* * *

Classical American psychologist William James more than 100 years ago expressing something seen as a prediction: The power to move the world is in your unconscious mind. It may be interpreted as a might of revealed and filled in omissions of civilization significance in [1], at that the source of this power is seen at adequately organized by a researcher a his own cognitive functional system. Just it only, with its parts consciousness, nearest sub-consciousness, near sub-consciousness, is able to widen effectively possibilities of the human cognition.
The work for developing such researches should be called naturally meta-cognitive researches, since their results might give methodological support to other sciences as wel as to the very cognitive science.

In place of conclusion:

Commenting V.. Allahverdovs book Methodological travel through the ocean of unconsciousness to the mysterious island of consciousness [7], Dr. .I. Yurev said out his credo:

psychology is responsive for happening in the world more then "specialists of the exact sciences" with their nuclear bombs and nuclear power stations, computer and financial nets. Without psychologists to have theoretical knowledge about the human at a modern level leaders surely will be wrong where the human is going in change. It is already understandable that, from point of view of human nature, the process of global change has gained alien and hostile character for people. But "groups of influence" dont know about it, because psychologists, first, reject to be unquestionable authorities in areas of changing the human consciousness and, second, frequently may not be such authorities because of archaic and unconvincing character of their arguments.


1. , .. . : , 1994, . 236240.
2. , . . . . : , 1969, . 69-71.
3. , .., , .. . : , 2000, . 314-3220.
4. , .. . .: , 2007.
5. , ., , . . . .: , 1970, . 134-144.
6. Warfield, J. Mentomology. The identification and classification of mindbugs (1995). Site cited:
7. , .. . .: , 2003.
8. Unique brain area seen only in humans. WorldScience, 01/29/2014:
9. Tretyakov V.N.:
9.1. Omissions of the civilization, how to light upon and fill in them (in Russian). , 2006, 10 11 (in Russian). Site cited: (in English).
9.2. Panoramic thinking as a concept:
9.3. Existential meta-problem of the human civilization (in Russian), in coll.: . .: 2014, 24, c. 177-187 (in Russian). Site cited: (in Russian).
9.4. Categorization and tolerant inclusion. L.c., c. 175176 (in Russian). Site cited: (in English).
9.5. Evolution mentomology (2013):
9.6. The time is to realize: ours is SPT civilization . .: 2014, 25, c. 102-105 (in Russian). Site cited: (in English).
9.7. Shortage of panoramic thinking: signs seen everywhere:
9.8. Evolution sense of notions and methods of the Earthy science, in coll.: . , 1990, . 3, . 39 (in Russian). Site cited: (in English).
9.9. Hypothesis on inner tolerance as common property of physical systems (in Russian). -- L.c., . 2, . 213220: (in Russian).
9.10. Principle of tolerance and law of tolerance:
9.11. Secret of the humor from evolution depths. , 2005, 4, . 3639 (in Russian). Site cited: (in English).
9.12. Hunting for a shortage following animal footprints in the human mind (in Russian): (in Russian).
9.13. Pseudo-congruence on universal algebras. -- .: , 1983 (in Russian). Site cited: (in Russian).
9.14. Instrument of the thought needs to be incarcerated. . 2003, #2, c. 51-56 (in Russian). Site cited: (in Russian).
9.15. Principle of tolerance and a concept how to counteract the aging. . 2000, #2, . 51-56 (in Russian). Site cited: (in English).
9.16. Replying the message on discovery of Humors secret by American scientists:


Changing the cognitive sciences paradigm

It is proposed to replenish the psychology and cognitive science with concepts of Tolerant Inclusion and Tolerant Separation (that and this may be realized and unrealized) to heighten effectiveness and societal significance of the science. It needs for this to explicate the Principle of tolerance to be yet used implicitly and realize both existential threats hidden in the Shortage of Panoramic Thinking and imperatively needed measures for them to overcome.

Publ. in: COGNITIVE STUDIES-2014. Proc. 5th interdisciplinary seminar. Minsk: BGPU, 2014, p. 124134 (in Russian).

Copyright © IntelTechV.N.Tretyakov (U.M.Tratsiakou). The present information is intellectual property of the author's site, who would be interested in knowing any usage of his materials. [email protected]

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